IPC 498a arrests, conviction rate, statistics show gross abuse of human rights

It is no hidden secret that IPC 498a is a weapons of human rights abuse of husband and his family/relatives, and judiciary including Supreme Court has given instances of its gross misuse and directives to government and law ministry for prevention of IPC 498a misuse and amendments.  Some police circulars have been issued in various states to prevent arbitrary arrests under 498a, but they are often not followed by police.  The suggestion to law ministry for amending 498a has also been pending for 2 years.

We analyze the conviction rate and arrest rate (number of people convicted/ number of people arrested) under IPC 498a using 2012 data from National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB).

From page 33 of compendium issued by NCRB for 2012:

Cruelty by husband or his relatives (Sec.498-A IPC)
(Incidence: 1,06,527  Rate: 8.8)
A total of  1,06,527  cases were reported in the country during the year 2012 showing an increase of 7.5% over 2011 and an increase of 21.1% over the average of last 5 years (2007  –  2012).  In terms of percentage, 43.7% of such crimes in the country were reported from three states  only  namely  West Bengal (19,865  cases), Andhra Pradesh(13,389  cases) and Rajasthan (13,312 cases). Tripura has reported the highest crime rate of  23.4 followed by West Bengal (21.9) and Assam (20.6)  as compared to National average of 8.8.

Following table shows our calculations based on data in NCRB report.  Our methodology is as follows:

1. Our main objectives are to find the ratio of number of convictions under IPC 498a versus the total number of cases filed, and ratio of number of arrests under IPC 498a versus the total number of cases filed.

2. Why do we use IPC 304B data also?  It is so because IPC 304B (dowry death) is applicable in case where a woman has died within 7 years of her marriage, and IPC 498a (Cruelty by husband or relatives to married woman) is always added as an additional charge along with IPC 304B by police.

3. So we deduct the numbers relating to IPC 304B to arrive at the total number of IPC 498a only cases in 2012, and then calculate the conviction rate in 498a cases = convicted/total 498a cases

4. Similarly we use the data from NCRB compendium on number of arrests in 2012 under IPC 498a, and use that data to calculate percentage of people arrested under IPC 498a = convicted/total 498a arrests

5. Unlike previous years, the 2012 report does not give data on number of persons arrested under each IPC, so it is not possible to analyze based on arrest and disposal figures. However, we have attempted a good approximation using the disposal of cases.

6. The approximations used (given lack of time-series data by NCRB) are: the disposed cases belong to earlier years whereas the number of arrests are from 2012, so given the increasing number of IPC 498a cases every year, the convicted/arrested figure will be slightly higher than our calculation.


So we come to the grand conclusion, the open secret, the lifeblood of Indian bail industry: that IPC 498a is the best way to slow and clog down the criminal courts, to make money for legal system to arrange bail for 1.97 lakh people (and increasing) arrested every year.  With percentage of convicted people to arrested people at 4%, is surely goes in line with the judicial maxim “It is better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer”When you arrest 25 people to convict 1, that must be a sure sign of a great civilization near the Indian ocean on a sure and steady path to become the next superpower!


While this data analysis has been done for whole of India, another NGO Family Harmony has done analysis based on RTI replies from Bangalore police stations, and they report a magnificent success ratio of 0.66% for whole of Bangalore for the number of convictions/number of arrests within Bangalore city.  Kudos are due to both Bangalore police and its courts for wasting taxpayer money in such effortless way while striking terror at the hearts of all husbands and their families!

5 thoughts on “IPC 498a arrests, conviction rate, statistics show gross abuse of human rights

  1. Pingback: No automatic arrest in 498a, says Supreme Court - Men Rights India

  2. Dear Sir,
    With great pleasure I would like to say that this is a great effort for relaxation those men who are gentle, cool nature and non-violence tendency. It is fact that no bride would like to expel her groom’s family into jail, but she is misguided by her family or hidden enemies of the groom’s dynasty who are jealous of peaceful, prosperous and happy atmosphere of the family. I have faced such misuse of 498a, and therefore career of my parents, brother and sisters have been spoiled by the family of my wife, by just their threatening me that they will expel my whole family to the jail, when I were going to Saudi Arabia after spending my six month vacation.They have spoiled my VISA, I couldn’t take my whole whole benefits, experience certificate which is given after clearance and Final Exit on Passport.Me with my brother are responsible to feed a family of 8 dependants and we have no source of income in India. I feel that I can go To earn Saudi Arabia and I have no need to panic with threats of bride’s family as threated saying ‘I would have kidnapped you from the airport’, and many things what any civilized person will not say with husband of her sister.I have also responsibilities for my sisters how can they think that after marriage I have to take care of my wife only.First of all I would like to know what steps can be taken by me for rights of my family members and me to go to Saudi Arabia to earn money without any stoppage and what should I do to protect my family members behind me when I was outside India, and what are consequences if I quit by terminating this marriage contract.

    Please give complete guidance about 302 also ‘Stree Dhan’, ‘Amanat mein Khyanat’ I am avoiding taking gifts etc. by them and have returned scooter and other invitations by them and I am against Dowry.What are Do’s and Don’ts.

    Iqbal Ahmad

  3. 1.97 lac people arrested, 4% convicted. Not only gross misuse of IPC498a
    but making fun of judiciary and a waste of money , time and engergy of courts, government employees and public in general. High time the govt. takes a serious view of the law and revise it in full. Thanks to H’ble SC which in its high esteem keeps a hawk’s eye on such matters and amended it recently.

  4. Pingback: Points on IPC 498A law, misuse, future PIL for Dowry Law Misuse etc. - Men Rights India

  5. Sir support me.
    Meri wife ne mere or meri family par jhute jhute case kar rahi he bahut paresan hogye h. Pehle 498a or ab papa par 354..
    Smjh ni aarya kya kru

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